Welcome to the Aluminum Section of the ADC Website
This section contains a wide variety of resources regarding aluminum, upper atmospheric experiments using aluminum, the military use of aluminum coated fiberglass particulates (Chaff), and how aluminum is impacting our environment.
You will find in the pdf files below government documents, university studies, articles, and a wide variety of other information on Aluminum. Also included are links to other information and research on this topic with regard to tree health, human health, soils, water, and other isuses.
The water test graphs of Aluminum are from data supplied by the California State Department of Health, Drinking Water Division, Sacramento, CA. This drinking water data is only for water tests taken in the State of California. (If you require information on water tests taken in your state please contact your local water district or your local water supplier. Under the EPA guidelines they are required by law to provide you with all of their water tests, not just summary data, upon request.)
(If you need additional information please contact us at your convenience by going to the Contact Section of this website.)
General Information on Aluminum
Aluminum Oxide Information
Atmospheric Releases of Aluminum (+ Other Releases) and Experiments
Genetically Modified-Aluminum Resistant Plants & Impact of Aluminum on Trees+Plants
U.S. Government Documents & Information on Aluminum & Aluminum Compounds
Aluminum Dust Fires
U.S. Navy & NASA CARE (Charged Aerosol Release Experiment) Using Rocket Releases of Aluminum Oxide
Aluminum Health Issues
U.S. Air Force & NASA TMA Rocket Atmospheric Experiments (Trimethylaluminum)
Rocket Fuels & Emissions (Related Information)
Aluminum - Marine Life & Oceans
Aluminum - Miscellaneous Information
Aluminum Search History & Links
CHAFF - Aluminum Coated Fiberglass Information (Military Use)
CHAFF - Hazardous Materials
CHAFF Studies & Research
CHAFF - U.S. Air Force
CHAFF - EPA
CHAFF - U.S. GAO Reports
CHAFF - U.S. Navy
CHAFF Use in Space Atmosphere
CHAFF - U.S. Navy History & Miscellanous Information
CHAFF - Abstract Reports
CHAFF - HAARP & HARP General Information & Tests
CHAFF - U.S. Navy Reports & Information
CHAFF - U.S. Army Reports, Experiments & Information
CHAFF - Weather Modification
U.S. Air Force & NASA TMA Experiments (Using Rockets for Atmospheric Releases)
Aluminum & Other Toxics Used in Military Obscurants & Smokes
Aluminum - Forests & Trees + Soils
Aluminum - Plants & Soils + Genetic Modifications
Aluminum in Soils
Aluminum - U.S. Patents
Aluminum - Periodic Table & Technical Reports
Aluminum - Weather Modification
Aluminum Drinking Water Test Results from the California State Department of Health, Drinking Water Divsion Website (Graphs Compliments of the Agriculuture Defense Coalition).
Aluminum Manufacturers (Also MSDS Information)
No Comment - More Research Required
ALICE 2011"...Polymer Rocket Fuel...Thiokol, a manufacturer of synthetic rubber and high temperature sealants, got into rocketry by accident when someone at J.P.L. discovered the Thiokol polymers also made excellent rocket fuel. This was an odd return to solid over liquid rocket fuel, but a relatively good choice. Thiokol fuels have been used in the Falcon, Pollux, Minuteman, Trident, and Atlas Rocket. It is also used in the shuttles solid rocket booster.
The Ares (pronounced "air" "iss") 1 Launch Vehicle, the shuttle replacement, will also be powered by Thiokol's polymer fuels.
Changes in Fuel - ALICE
For all of this though, rockets have primarily been powered by liquid hydrogen and oxygen. This has been the "gold standard" for the last fifty years. A new mixture called ALICE could replace these old standbys. ALICE is a portmanteau of AL for aluminum and ICE for frozen water. The aluminum side of the equation consists of nano-sized particles of aluminum powder. This powder is suspended in water-ice. The substance, which is said to have the consistency of toothpaste, works via a chemical reaction between the water and aluminum. This reaction produces hydrogen byproducts and heat. The substance could also be used to power fuel cells. Research is ongoing.
Steven Son, a professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue University: "In the bigger picture, we're looking at technology that can store hydrogen long term. Water is a nice, stable way to store hydrogen." The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and NASA are showing considerable interest in this liquid fuel replacement. Enough so to fund initial rocket firing tests. Research teams at Purdue and Penn State Universities launched ALICE fueled rockets to a height of thirteen hundred feet (1,300) last August.
Aluminum is already used in rocketry due to it's high ignition temperature of 6,920°F, but ALICE is capable of getting even higher temperatures by reducing the size of the aluminum particles to 80 nanometers. Aluminum particles in this size range combust much more rapidly than larger particles. The combustion of the aluminum is only one of two parts of the rocketry equation in ALICE. Due to the high temperatures produced by burning aluminum the hydrogen in the water is released to react. The oxygen is locked up in the unburned aluminum as aluminum oxide. The byproducts of this "burn" are much cleaner than the 230 tons of hydrochloric acid currently produced during a shuttle launch. Finally, aluminum and water are well known materials and present far fewer chemical and explosive hazards than many other forms of rocket fuel to date. Because aluminum and water are known to exist on both Mars and the Moon this fuel presents some exciting possibilities to the future of interplanetary space flight..." Penn State, Perdue, & Georgia Tech Universities ALICE-Videos
David Keith, Calgary University
Geoengineering with Aluminum Vapor
in the Stratosphere-Better than Sulfur.
Proposed program using jets-Royal Flight
Sciences working on delivery options.
2010 Power Point Presentation Video Clip
March 2012 NASA ATRIX Rocket Launches
NASA will launch five sounding rockets loaded with trimethyl aluminum in order to conduct atmospheric experiments. See Flight Path and information about experiment or read article.
March 22, 2012 http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/missions/atrex-launch.html
U.S. Navy Researcher Links Toxins In War-Zone Dust to Ailments
USA Today News – May 11, 2011
"...U.S. troops in Iraq, Afghanistan and Kuwait have inhaled microscopic dust particles laden with toxic metals, bacteria and fungi — a toxic stew that may explain everything from the undiagnosed Gulf War Syndrome symptoms lingering from the 1991 war against Iraq to high rates of respiratory, neurological and heart ailments encountered in the current wars, scientists say..."
"..."From my research and that of others, I really think this may be the smoking gun," says Navy Capt. Mark Lyles, chair of medical sciences and biotechnology at the Center for Naval Warfare Studies at the Naval War College in Newport, R.I. "It fits everything — symptoms, timing, everything."
Lyles and other researchers found that dust particles — up to 1,000 of which can sit on the head of a pin — gathered in Iraq and Kuwait contain 37 metals, including aluminum, lead, manganese, strontium and tin. The metals have been linked to neurological disorders, cancer, respiratory ailments, depression and heart disease, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Researchers believe the metals occur both naturally and as a byproduct of pollution..."
"...The dust contains 147 different kinds of bacteria, as well as fungi that could spread disease, Lyles found. Since the wars began in Iraq in 2003 and in Afghanistan in 2001, the military has seen a 251% increase in the rate of neurological disorders per 10,000 active-duty service members, a 47% rise in the rate of respiratory issues and a 34% increase in the rate of cardiovascular disease, according to a USA TODAY analysis of military morbidity records from 2001 to 2010. Those increases have researchers seeking possible causes..."
"...Sprigg first looked at dust from Africa 10 years ago.
“I was shocked,” he says. “The current wisdom is that any bacteria or virus that might be alive, after it hits the air, it’s exposed to ultraviolet radiation and killed.”
But weather systems pick up the particles, protecting them from ultraviolet radiation with clouds, outside layers of yet more bacteria, and the sun-blocking dust itself.
“I think it can fly for hundreds of miles and not contact sunlight,” he says..."
Catherine Cahill, associate professor at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, "...called the abundance of aluminum and lead she found "our worst-case scenarios." Cahill says her research mirrors the work done by Lyles..."
"...Many had been exposed to a sulfur fire in Mosul, Iraq. They also had been exposed to burn pits — the military disposes of trash at bases in Iraq and Afghanistan by burning as much as 240 tons of it a day in open pits. All of them came through chest X-rays and CT scans with clean bills of health. The soldiers volunteered for a procedure to obtain lung cell samples, and when Miller examined the biopsies, 50 of 54 showed constrictive bronchiolitis — a rare lung disease that closes the tiniest airways..."
"...ALS affects about 1 to 2 people per 100,000 — usually men older than 55. Half the Desert Storm veterans diagnosed with ALS were younger than 25, and 98% were younger than 55.
"We know that aluminum has been associated with ALS, as well as lead," Horner says. "We were definitely interested in Lyles' work."..."